Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Disease
Senior Musculoskeletal Specialist
Sports Medicine Consultants
To truly understand why the human race today, an advanced society
face such a significant problem regarding neurodegenerative disease (NDD),
which is not only on the increase but presenting in younger patients as well, we
need to understand what changed. NDD was initially seen in the developed countries
but later become just as common in 3rd world countries. It effects
the entire population of the world, either directly and/or indirectly and its
consequences are devastating on the patient are the family that care for their
The biggest significant change in the history of human food
consumption was initiated soon after the Second World War.
Below is a brief description of what can be considered the greatest
propaganda program ever accomplishment that would even make Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s, Nazi party’s propaganda expert
Humans always consumed animal fats with no incidence of cancers,
obesity, diabetes and many of the other diseases that fat and
cholesterol has been blamed for. The cause was
and still is refined sugar and hydrogenated oil
(vegetable oil and trans fats).
In 1936 research by Lande and Sperry
"There was no correlation between cholesterol and arteriosclerosis"
Lande and Sperry: Archives of
Pathology. 22. 301-312.
In the late 1950’s there was a
considerable effort to change the opinion of American population from eating animal fats
to consuming hydrogenated vegetable oil, undertaken
by the Edible Oil Industry (EOI) however the medical
community held the main resistance to the change in policy.
The American Association and the Lipid Hypothesis
Their policy in a general news release, October
“The anti-fat, anti-cholesterol fad
is not just foolish and futile…..It also carries some risk.
Scientific reports linking cholesterol and heart disease attacks
have touched off a new food fad among do it your self Americans. Dieters who
believe they can cut down on their blood cholesterol without medical
supervision are in for a rude awakening. It can’t be done. It could even be dangerous
In 1960 The EOI
supervised the American
Heart Association (AHA), National Heart Lung & Blood
Institute (NHLBI) and the American Diabetic
Association by controlling what research was published in respected journals of the day,
which resulted in a significant influence on health policy.
This resulted in changes at a
foundation level regarding animal fats and vegetable
oils, even in parts of the medical community.
In 1965 Dr. Fed Mattson of Procter and Gamble told
the American Heart Association (AHA) to change its diet/heart statement
any reference to ‘trans fatty acids’ (found in
As a result the altered official document encouraged consumption of
partly hydrogenated fats.
In 1971 the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) general council became president of the Edible Oil Trade Association (EOTA), replaced at the FDA
by a food lawyer,
Peter Hutt of Covington and Burling who had represented
In the 1970’s and 80’s Dr. Mattson (Proctor and Gamble) held two controlling research positions in the Lipid Research
Clinic Trials that led to the National
Cholesterol Education Program.
By the early 1970’s official long
standing policies had already begun eroding to the opposite of what they had previously
advised. The main reason behind this was to make the American population uncomfortable about
their current cholesterol levels.
Diet and Coronary Heart Dieses recommendations
by the following medical bodies in 1972-1973:
AHA, AMA and NAS
“The average level of serum cholesterol in the average American man and women is undesirably elevated.
Therefore the measurement of
cholesterol should be routine even in early
adulthood. Americans in the risk category should receive dietary advice.
Risk category should reduce saturated fats and replace with polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Modified and ordinary foods
useful for this purpose should be readily available reasonably priced and
easily identified by labeling. Any existing legal and regulatory barriers to the marketing
of this food should be removed.”
These were some hurdles to overcome, as the law required imitation
food to bear labeling, informing consumers that the food was an imitation. Hydrogenated or
partly hydrogenated vegetable oil was legally an imitation food,
so like any propaganda program; the laws of the land were changed.
The law in 1938 on imitation food
The Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938
“…..certain traditional foods that everyone knows like bread, milk
and cheese and when consumers buy these foods, they should get foods they are
expecting…..If a food resembles a standardized
food but does not comply with the standard,
that food must be labeled as an ‘imitation’’’
This was change by 1973 to allow oil producers of hydrogenated or partly
hydrogenated vegetable oil to sell their produce without
labeling it as an imitation.
FDA Imitation Policy 1973
“….attempting to provide for advances in food technology and…..
(gave) ……manufactures relief from
the dilemma of either complying
with an outdated standard or having to label
their new product as ‘imitation’…….
Such products are not necessarily inferior
to traditional foods for which they may be substituted………regulation defined
‘inferior’ as any reduction in content of an essential
nutrient present at a level of 2% or more
of the USA recommended daily allowance.
The influence of
one of the most powerful lobby groups in American history, the Institute of shortening and edible oils (ISEO) exercised their influence on developing policy
for the American population. By 1973 their war was won.
Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs Chaired by:
George McGovern, 1973-1977
Promoted the AHA ‘Lipid hypothesis” dissecting testimony was ignored.
Conclusion: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data showed that animal
fats caused and vegetable fats prevented cancer
and heart disease while independent analysis showed the exact opposite, animal fats do not
cause cancer and heart disease.
The benefit to the EOI, the report significantly influenced American
dietary habits towards more vegetable oils, less animal fats while part of the medical profession remained skeptical of the benefits of cholesterol
There were some in the medical profession that did not agree with
the current policy of the day and just like any dictatorship they were silenced in many ways, typically using the passive/aggressive approach. Licenses
to practice medicine were suspended and funding
for research that didn’t support the policy of the day completely disappeared. It
is also greatly concerning that research from the USDA
was used which would be considered unethical
however this type of unethical research is still found in some areas of medical
In what is surely of one histories greatest
propaganda accomplishments that continues to this day, almost 120 years of misinformation has affected the lives of
so many people, it is not even possible to compare it with histories previous holocausts,
ethnic cleansing, wars etc.
So, now that the history of animal fat and cholesterol have been
explained, let’s now look at what a low fat diet, high in refined sugar, with
hydrogenated or partly hydrogenated vegetable oil causes.
NDD are typically classified as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Multiple
Sclerosis and some others that less commonly known diseases like MND, ALS etc.
I personally would define the starting of the pathophysiology of NDD
by the following:
The ratio of
abdominal fat between, just above the navel down to the pubic synthesis, relative
to the fat on both thighs and both arms.
Please note that anatomical terms are used to describe locations so thighs
are between the hips and knees, arms between shoulders and elbows and the pubic
synthesis is just below the area a pregnant woman would have a C-section
incision for the birthing process.
I refer to this ratio as the hormonal balance
In the picture o the left you will notice that while most of society
would say this lady has a very good physique she presents with a high HBR.
She provides a good clinical example of someone who runs off peaks
of adrenalin through her waking day, associated with chronically elevated levels
When elevated levels of cortisol are chronic it signifies the start
of NDD. Cortisol strips the protein off the arms and thighs so it can be converted to sugar
fat on the abdominal area, just above the navel and down to
the pubic synthesis area. If more fat is stored down towards the pubic
synthesis area it signifies a higher imbalance of the entire endocrine system
as apposed to higher up on the abdomen, which is still a symptom of an imbalance.
An imbalanced endocrine system, when chronic initiates metabolic
disease and progresses to many diseases that include but are not limited to diabetes,
obesity, heart disease, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases etc…..
The picture was taken at the US Oscar Ceremony in 2013, the
amount of fat just above the navel and down to the pubic synthesis relative to both her arms and both thighs, which are
(not leaner), indicate an endocrine system that is chronically
One of the great misconceptions is that exercise, especially
cardiovascular exercise will resolve the HBR. If undertaken like so many people
try it only results in higher levels of cortisol being maintained for even
The definitions of overweigh or fat should
be bases on the HBR
and not by just weigh. The body mass ratio (BMR)
also has its drawbacks and while this can give an indication of a persons
health it is rather inaccurate, as well as the
BMI measurement cant be applied to all people.
Diabetes a common presentation and becoming even more common among
the younger population, especially in the under 40 year age group. There is
also a concerning number a young children who have developed type II diabetes.
In type II diabetes nerves become damaged, as they don’t receive
adequate oxygen and nutrient supply, this is typically why nerves that are
supplied by the small capillaries are affected first. Diabetes affects your
nervous system; it is literally a form of neurodegenerative disease.
When blood can’t travel through the capillaries due to excess sugar leading to
changes in blood viscosity.
This results in insulin receptors downgrade and excess sugar in the
blood. The area that this sugar is eventually deposited as fat, the abdomen!
It is reasonable to conclude that since cortisol, one of the main
hormones released by the body when subject to stress results in abdominal fat
deposition, that sugar increases cortisol levels however there has been no
research undertaken to assess the validity of this theory! The author of this
paper believes that there is an intimate relationship between cortisol and
sugar, especially when elevated levels of sugar remain in the blood!
syndrome precedes diabetes, which typically precedes NDD. During metabolic syndrome there may be no symptoms that are
obvious to individual but the ability to control sugar effectively has significantly decreased.
Some of the metabolic syndrome symptoms are:
gut bloating, difficulty awaking in the morning, craving sugar, quick temper,
sessional depressive disorder, infertility, impotence, reduced libido, fatigue,
poor sleeping patterns, foul smelling feces, fungal infection (nails and or
thrush), over eating due to lack of satiety, depression and more.
When the individual notices the abdominal fat storage, typically they make
mistake. Exercising in the hope to get rid of the
abdominal fat and trying to eat less. While only a few decades ago young
children who ate poor quality food and just remain active was enough to maintain
a normal HBR even though by the beginning of their 3rd decade their
HBR was presenting an unhealthy ratio. By comparison, these days there is so
much sugar in our food supply that the diagnosis of babies with diabetes is
So what is a healthy amount of fat to maintain on your navel and
what causes us to store fat here.
From experience working with Olympic and high performance athletes
like Formula 1 pilots and air force pilots, I recommend these athletes
aim for 0.5:1
ratio. That is, half the amount of fat on their abdomen relative to both their
arms and both thighs.
For the general population I recommend a 1:1
ratio, this is irrespective
of, if you are exercising
often, seldom or not
at all. Exercise does not correct your endocrine imbalance; only the
food we eat can achieve this!
If you have a 2:1 ratio you most likely have or are in advanced
stages of developing metabolic syndrome.
ratio places you at a significant risk for more serious diseases like cardiovascular disease,
cancers and NDD. These would typically present after the start of your 3rd
decade of life. A higher ratio would typically result in the mentioned diseased
earlier in life.
Simply put its sugars
and hydrogenated oils.
Not all sugars are the same, while they are bad for us, some are
much worse than others. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is the worst of all. Without
going into a great deal of biochemistry, your liver converts around 55-60% of
this sugar to fat and it is stored on the abdomen while the remaining 40-45% is
dealt with by insulin and again stored on the abdomen as fat.
Fructose is the next worse. I get many patients upset by this, as fructose
is the sugar in fruit. If you would like to understand how fattening this sugar
is try this experiment. Eat 5 mangos over the course of the day and anything
else you want for the day, for 7 days. Your abdominal fat will increase every day you stay on that diet.
Fructose is dealt with by your liver and while circulating around
your body it literally
burns your nerves, as all sugars do however the sweeter they are the faster they
This of course is bad news and is worse if your liver function is not optional.
If liver function is suboptimal then this will allow the fructose
for even longer
If you require proof that sugar burns your nerves, ask any
professional chef what they use to get the burnt/brown effect on meat (protein
and fat, the same
tissue our nerves are composed of) and they will tell you sugar. This
effect occurs quicker while frying as the heat, a catalyst chemically,
increases the speed of the reaction. In the human body this occurs much slower
due to a lower temperature.
Sucrose, table sugar is the next worse form of sugar; it is a 50:50
ratio of glucose and fructose.
Glucose is the sugar the body is designed to run on but even this
increases abdominal fat however at the slowest rate of all the sugars. If you
use a sweetener that has ‘zero calories’ you create significant imbalances
in the endocrine system driven by the effect this has on the brain.
We run on nutrients and obesity is caused by malnutrition, fat
people who are starving! Yes the malnutrition in Africa in the 1980’s comes to mind; ironic don’t
you think however this is one example of how ‘USA for Africa’ charity program
failed. The high sugar low fat diet doesn’t work!
The human body will make you eat food until you have the required nutrients, not calories. When the
stretch receptors in the stomach are activated it signals to the brain that we
should stop eating to avoid a laceration of an internal organ. This is not a
signal to the brain that the required nutrients have been absorbed. This is
represented by the HBR.
There are examples of professional athletes suffering serious cardiovascular
events, they have
a high HBR
(for a professional athlete not high for the general public) and undertake
a high amount of
exercise, English Premiership football players, among others have proved
this and it will only become more common, sadly!
So, how do you get your HBR to improve? Well its not exercise and cutting down on
calories like most s ‘specialists’ claim. You need to feed your hormonal system, because this is what controls 90%
of fat utilization and storage.
Have you ever wondered why the body is so efficient at storing fat? Why we are so
efficient at converting
excess sugar to
Fat occurs in every cell of our body, its just found in different
amounts in different areas of the body. Our brain, depending on what reference
book you read contain between 70-75 percent cholesterol, our fattest organ!
I am going to challenge one rule of human nature here:
CD occurs in all professions but in my experience it is rife in medicine
and heath care when it comes to addressing chronic health issues.
There is a huge amount of good scientific research to prove that the vast majority
issues addressed by medicine are flawed, however I credit medicine is very good at
The single most important nutrient for the hormonal
system is fat and
nutrient is sugar.
There are many different
types of fat and the best type is saturated fat however there is a very important
distinction to make. The method of cooking the fat you eat will either
cause disease or
feed your hormonal system.
Fat and sugar
in relation to biochemistry are opposites! The ‘specialists’ will tell you that
fat is bad and will make you fat but they are suffering from a syndrome called CD.
There is only one way to get the fat stored on
your abdomen off! Eating fat that has been cooked correctly and significantly
reducing sugar intake!
In many cancer research papers ‘specialists’ claim that fat causes cancer.
This is not correct and once again gives a clear view of
the reductionist approach applied to chronic health issues that makes medicine
so awful at addressing these chronic issues.
If you burn anything, food, wood, coal, diesel, plastic etc so it gives off
bond, typically in the form of black smoke, its carcinogenic.
So if you regularly cook any food and burn it or eat lots of smoked food products,
cycle in to work and back during peak traffic, your chances of getting cancer
Sugar is also known to increase cancerous growths.
Eating fat cooked correctly does not increase cardiovascular disease and if cholesterol
were part of the human race they would go down in history as the race most discriminated
We live in the year 2013, chronic diseases are not just on the increase
but are presenting
in patients at a younger
NDD has significantly increased and will bankrupt all health care
systems worldwide. We as a species are the fattest we have been in all recorded history, yet we are consuming
amount of fat and
the greatest amount
in all recorded history!
If you want functional health independence into and past your
you can contact me about how to not just achieve this but also maintain this
If you accept that part of aging is becoming dysfunctional and more reliant
drugs to manage
chronic diseases while you become less independent while you age, I will
leave you with one though!
When you have to be taken to the bathroom and then cleaned by a caregiver you will not be content with
I have no doubt that this article has made many people feel uncomfortable.
The point is to provide
unbiased, balanced information to empower you to make informed choices
about your long
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